Getting to Know the Different Types of Printed Circuit Boards

March 31st, 2015

All modern electronic devices now have a printed circuit board integrated within. These boards play very important roles in allowing interactive and intelligent services to users. Computers, TVs, coffee makers, refrigerators, washing machines and mobile phones all have PCBs that run their functions, allowing users for smart use. Most modern PCBs are made of laminated plastics that have soldered chips, metal circuits, sockets, different components and cables.

Types of printed circuit board

pcbnetOver the years, there were many PCB types made in response to the growing need for increasingly sophisticated devices. There are various classifications, which includes according to type of substrate and how the layers were manufactures.

The different types according to substrate material include the FR-2 paper/phenolic, FR-4 epoxy, and FR-4 high and ultra-high performance.

The FR-2 Paper/Phenolic type of PCB uses synthetic resin bonded paper. This is a composite material produced from paper, which is impregnated with plasticized resin of phenol formaldehyde. The FR-2 sheet is most commonly used in the manufacture of low-end kinds of consumer electronic equipment.

The FR-4 Epoxy board is made of fiberglass cloth that is woven together using an epoxy resin as a binder. This binding material is flame-resistant, which means it has self-extinguishing capabilities. When electrical fires break out within the circuit, the natural characteristic of the substrate material discourages the fire from building up and spreading to other parts. The FR-4 material has nearly zero absorptive capacity, which means it does not absorb moisture that can be produced from the heat generated by electrical conduction. It also high values when it comes to mechanical strength. This means that the fiberglass substrate is able to withstand pressure and stress. Also, the high electrical insulating qualities as well as physical values are retained in both humid and dry operating conditions. Because of these characteristics, FR-4 epoxy PCBs function more often as electrical insulators.

Also, fiberglass has very high flammability values. This means that extremely high temperatures are needed before the material bursts into flames. For a fiberglass substrate to be considered as FR-4 and flame retardant, it must pass the standards of at least a UL 94 V-1a for plastics flammability.

Epoxies used should also be heat resistant, to avoid degradation when heat and moisture are generated when the device is used. The most common material used is brominated epoxy.

An FR-4 high and ultra-high performance printed circuit board is most often used for consumer electronics that are battery-powered and require circuit boards that are highly dependable. This maximizes the autonomy of the device, allowing for longer life and consistent function. These qualities are even more crucial for instruments and equipment used for military and aerospace applications, rapidly performing computer servers, and medical equipment and electronic instrument crucial for maintaining life. Most of these circuit boards used for these sensitive applications are PTFE-based. This is polytetrafluoroethylene, which allows for dielectric permitivity (Dk) and loss tangent (Df).

PCBs are also classified according to the layer of substrates used. This classification includes the single-sided board, double-sided board and the multi-layered board.

A single-sided printed circuit board is the simplest type. The substrate comes in a single layer. All of the electronic components and parts are grouped o one side of the side and all the copper traces in the other.

A double-sided PCB is the most commonly used type. Parts and components of the circuit are attached on both sides of the board’s substrate. There are connecting traces on the upper and lower surfaces of the substrate to ensure continuity of the connections.

There are multiple layers of substrate found in a multi-layered type of circuit board. The layers are separated by insulating material. These boards may have 4, 6, 8 or 10 layers. Some may even exceed 42 layers. Multi-layered boards are more commonly used in devices, equipment and instruments that require electronic circuits that are extremely complex.

How to Order Customized Military Coins

February 11th, 2015

Challenge coins or more popularly known as military coins have been present for decades. First used during World War 1 to recognize the service and membership of soldiers and military personnel, it is now used by other organizations and even business companies to bear the emblem and insignia of the organization.

Military coins are used as medallions or awards. It is used to acknowledge the achievements and accomplishments of a member of a certain organization. Some military coins bear the symbol of the Navy Cross or Medal of Honor.

military coinsMilitary coins can be customized. It can be made from different materials such as metal, copper, brass, nickel, silver or gold. Some challenge coins are also designed to have an antique or polished finished. Some have diamond edges, engravings, 3D designs and cut outs. It all depends on what the customer wants for the challenge coins.

When ordering customized challenge coins, the first step is coming up with the design. The customer can decide the color and finish of the coin. Will it have an engraved emblem or an embossed symbol? Challenge coins also come in different shapes such as round coins, square coins, star shaped, dog tags or polygon shape.

After that, other details such as the size and type of metal to be used are included in the design plan. Even minor details such as cut out shapes and colors of the engravings are also considered.

In some cases, the customers make the design sketch themselves. Some customers on the other hand, prefer to have the design made by the graphic artist where they will order the challenge coins. But no matter the case, once the design sketch is finished, it is transferred to the coin makers to prepare for the molding and stamping.

The design is transformed into a stamp or engraver. This will be used to transfer the design to the coin. Afterwards, the coin is created by melting the metal material and pouring it to the molds of the required size and shape.

While the coin is still soft and cooling, the design is stamped or engraved into place. Other details such as the color are added by painting the coin manually. Then, it is cleaned and polished. The challenge coins are sent over to quality control to double check if there are any damages or problems in the coins. If none is found, the challenge coins are packed and delivered to the customer.

However, even if the customized challenge coins are made with great care and high quality materials, proper care and maintenance is needed to preserve the coins’ quality.

When wearing or using the challenge coins, make sure to avoid contact with water. Water and other liquidscould damage the coins by making it prone to discoloration and rusting; this is especially the case in metal challenge coins.

Cleaning the challenge coins depend on the type of material used to make it. Challenge coins made from gold, silver, brass, nickel, copper and metal are cleaned using different materials and methods.

For instance, brass coins can only be cleaned using jewelry polishing cloth or polishing cream. Silver and gold coins can be cleaned using silver or gold polishers. But for all types of challenge coins, it is important to use a soft polishing cloth to remove the dirt. Be gentle in rubbing and cleaning the coins. Avoid using brushes when cleaning the coins to avoid scratching the coin’s surface.

Customized challenge coins are very affordable and durable. As long as it is properly taken care of, people from different age groups can enjoy it for generations and years to come.

How to Clean Your Golf Clubs

February 7th, 2015

After buying a new golf club from the Taylormade golf shop, you will surely want to maintain it. And the best way to maintain it is to clean it regularly. Since you might be relatively new to playing golf, you might want to educate yourself with this article about the proper way to cleaning a golf club.

What Will You Use as a Cleaning Agent

You will not need to buy some expensive cleaning chemicals to get your club sparkling clean. All you need is a pail of warm water and a few drops of liquid dish soap. However, you can buy golf club cleaning kits from the Taylormade golf shop if you are unconfident about cleaning your clubs with regular household items.

By the way, make sure that you do not use boiling hot water since it might damage and loosen up the ferrule of your golf club. If that happens, your club’s head will become unstable and it will affect the trajectory of your shots.

Some Precautions

Anyway, get a big bucket if you are going to clean multiple clubs that you bought from the Taylormade golf shop. If you do not have a bucket that can contain all the clubs that you have, using your kitchen sink is a good alternative. Mix the warm water and liquid dish soap in it. Make sure the soap will create a thick foam of suds.

Taylormade golfBy the way, do not put too much water on it. The level of the water in the bucket should be enough to cover the head of the clubs only. Remember that you do not want to get the ferrules to become wet too much even if you are just going to use warm water. Also, never wet or submerge any wooden part of your club in water. For those wooden parts, wiping them with a damp towel is enough.

Loosening up the Dirt and Stains

When the bucket is already prepared, just dip the golf clubs on it. Leave it for a few minutes (five minutes should be long enough). However, if you are going to clean clubs with too much dirt on them, you might want to leave them for ten minutes.

Getting and Choosing the Right Brush

After that, it is time to remove the clubs from the bucket. By that time, the dirt, chemicals, and oil on the clubs should have loosen up. Get a brush with thick bristles. In case you do not have one, an old toothbrush will do. However, never try using a steel wire brush to clean your clubs even if the dirt on the clubs is too stubborn to remove. Using something like that can permanently damage a club’s face and its grooves, which can certainly degrade the performance of your club.

How Will You Brush and Clean Your Golf Club

Use the brush you have to scrub the dirt away from the club heads. Do not scrub too hard. You should start scrubbing the faces of the club heads first. Then you should clean the back of the club heads.

Once you are done with that part, start scrubbing the top and bottom parts. The next step is cleaning the clubface’s grooves. With this task, a toothbrush is perfect, but in case the grooves are too deep and the dirt inside them are too difficult to remove using the brush, you can use a regular toothpick to pick those dirt out.

Finish the Job by Letting the Clubs Dry

It is now time to wash away the soapsuds that came in contact with your club from the Taylormade golf shop. Get a pail cool water, and paddle the club heads on it gently and slowly. After that, you should dry your clubs. You can just simply use a regular towel or clean rug for this step. Make sure that the clubs are completely dry to prevent moisture from damaging them. Also, never put them back in your golf back unless they are completely dry. You might want to expose it a bit outside the bag to make sure.

Taylormade golf rules the particular tour with TaylorMade golf drivers and Taylormade golf fairway woods.

Flaws In The Employee Engagement Survey

February 3rd, 2015

A number of issues can affect the quality of a worker’s exerted efforts. In turn, this can affect the overall productivity and profitability of a company. The main goal of a company is to succeed and success is determined by how well they operate financially. In order to ensure that a satisfactory level of generated income is achieved, it is necessary for all employees to provide good efforts in all of the functions that they are responsible for. This is where the concept of employee engagement enters the picture.

It is not enough for workers to be happy in their line of work and with the company that they are working for. Happiness is not what is primarily measured when it comes to engagement. Although happy employees work better, this does not always mean that they work productively. Engagement pertains more to one’s investment in a firm, it is about the things that make workers work the way that they do may it be on a positive or negative light. There are many businesses that conduct employee engagement surveys on a regular basis to see if their employees are content, happy, and invested in their line of work. However, the results may be flawed at some levels.

Employee EngagementThe main reason why this type of measure may not always be a reliable source of information is because of its propensity for false equivalencies. This means that the survey focuses on content, happy, and invested workers. This measure of employee engagement immediately concludes that if workers do not possess any of these traits, then they are automatically disengaged and that the work that they do is always of poor quality. It is actually possible for people to deliver quality output even if they are not as happy with what they are involved in. There are those who simply work for the sake of working and earning a paycheck. This makes them equally competent as their colleagues.

Another reason for its flawed nature is the fact that it concentrates on happiness as the only cause of good work. In reality, happy workers are not always the most productive employees nor are their effort the best there is. Also, keeping workers happy is not the best method of boosting morale or productivity in the workplace. This is where the measure on employee engagement may end up generating more losses than earnings. Since they are led to believe that happy workers work better, they focus on increasing their level of satisfaction through incentives, bonuses, company trips, and the like. They fail to realize that investments in training or exposure to industry conferences can help improve the quality of their employees’ work.

Considering how this type of measure may not be the most accurate test of engagement available to businesses, it is important for companies to put their efforts into more meaningful methods of improving employee engagement. One of the best methods to start with is establishing an understanding of what differences exist between happiness and engagement in the office. It is simply a question of whether a worker is exerting an effort for his benefit or for his and the company’s success.

Another excellent strategy to consider is the investment in different forms of training that will educate, enlighten, and motivate employees to perform better not only for their own sake but for the success of their home organization as well. As happy does not always mean that a worker is engaged, companies should keep an open mind and an alert one at that to potential problems that may cause the workers to lose interest in their jobs.

Keynotes Speakers and Their Roles

January 29th, 2015

Keynote speakers are significant and integral to almost all gathering of professionals, especially those occasions intended to impart knowledge.

In any programme or invitation, their names occupy a luminous spot, often highlighted with a relatively larger font size and better font types. Some keynote speakers have established credibility in delivering great speeches. But for those who still have to gain experience, what does it take for them to earn that prestigious spot?

Keynote speakersFirst and foremost, keynote speakers must know the roles that they are playing. Knowing these things will be helpful in letting them find out how they can master the craft of this kind of public speaking.

Below is a list of roles of keynote speakers:

1.A passionate sharer of valuable wisdom.

The audience must learn from them – the kind of learning wherein the crowd feels that what they have listened to has come out from the heart, and not from the brain.

2.A wise and cooperative guest.

Though the speaker is a special guest, he must not take advantage of it. He must take the initiative to know the event and the audience’s demographic and psychographic information. He also cooperates with the organization’s officers, and event managers and staff before, during and even after the occasion.

3.A considerate speaker who does not laud his own.

He or she must not talk about his or her achievements or future projects in life, the speech must revolve only on the theme of the occasion. The audience will get tired if the speaker keeps on talking only abut himself. The speaker must consider imparting what only is relevant to the audience’s career and life itself.

4.A clever entertainer.

Humors should be injected every now and then to the speech of the keynote speaker so that the audience will not dose off. Furthermore, incorporating humor into the message the speaker wants to share will establish his cleverness or wit.

He must know wisely how to integrate relevant anecdotes to his or her speech. Anecdotes back-up whatever important note the speaker has in store for the audience. These real stories add emotion and entertainment to the main part of the speech.

5.Skilled conveyor of call-to-action ideas.

Keynote speakers are supposed to motivate and inspire others. They are unworthy to remember if they do not share the sense of urgency to the audience.

Speeches dotted with call-to-action statements must be delivered at the perfect pace. Deliver the speech at the perfect pace. Talking intense at the climaxes, speaking soft at tender parts – these are skills that any guest speaker must acquire.

6.A professional speaker.

Even when it comes to the seemingly simplest details, like proper grooming or punctuality, every speaker must be keen in rounding up this kind of responsibilities.

This adds credibility to him as others will see that even at the littlest things, he is able to exhibit professionalism. Apart from establishing a good relationship with the event organizers, the speaker will also set up a long-lasting rapport with his listeners.

7.A grateful guest.

Earning a significant portion at any occasion deserve a big “thank you” from the invited speaker. After he has given hope and boost to his listeners, he must acknowledge that he was only able to do it because he was given the opportunity to do so. The best remembered speeches are those that end with a gratifying statement.

These mentioned roles are the prime responsibilities every speaker must know. Mastering these roles will give anyone a set of advantages needed to become a successful speaker.

These are also the bases on how one can tell if the name listed as an occasion’s keynote speaker is worthy of that special spot in the souvenir programme.

Lanyards of This Generation: Logo Lanyards

January 28th, 2015

In this generation, when a person hears the word lanyard, the first thing that comes to his or her mind is that it is a type of lace worn around the neck for holding a piece of object that is wanted to be kept visible at all times. Even though it is not the exact or denotative meaning of the term, most people associate the word with this concept ever since it became a trend to wear (In the dictionary, it actually defines lanyard as a rope for fastening something in a ship, or a strap that is used to hold objects). Lanyards, specifically neck lanyards, are very popular nowadays for various reasons. Not only are they worn for various common purposes, but they are also considered an accessory for label and fashion.

Logo LanyardsLanyards are made from different types of material, not only to suit the user’s comfort, but also to meet its end-purpose. Some lanyard materials include nylon, polyester, silk, satin, braided leather or braided paracord, and PET. Often, lanyards are used to hold small items – id cases, wallets or coin pouches, and electronic devices like cameras, smart phones, and USB flash drives. The lanyard is designed to have a loop of thread (or sometimes a thin circular metal) to thread into the end of a built-in hole at the corner or edge of the electronic device so that it can be worn for safety and convenience. Lanyards can also hold badges, key chains, and pretty much any small item that can be attached to it. Its unique capacity to hold items while keeping a person’s hand free made it both useful and trendy. It is widely functional at several work settings and is generally affordable.

Lanyards started to gain even more popularity ever since the mid-2000s. People started to wear them not only for its uses, but also because it has become part of fashion and the business world. Most frequently these days, the lanyards have printed logos customized on it; most of the logos are related to events, businesses, organizations, schools, and even government-related endorsement articles. These “logo lanyards” have become an accessory chiefly worn by the young-age group. They are continuing to prove to be not just useful, but can also be intended for aesthetics and self-expression.

Most students would have logo lanyards worn around their neck for the sole reason of flaunting their schools or universities. It is also helpful in identification if IDs are missing or fake. Business organizations on the other hand, use logo lanyards as part of their uniform, for team building, or promoting new sectors or departments to attract applicants for employment. It is handy for them because they can create their company logos however they want, so as to draw attention by using a variety of colors based on their design. Event coordinators also use them for the same reasons. Some government and non-government organizations even use them for advocating health or political ideas that would interest individuals of different age groups.

Logo lanyards continue to have a steady stream of recognition and utilization worldwide. Albeit a few might say that it has become too clichéd to wear lanyards, the overall practicality of the use of this item is still regarded. The fact that it remains a part of fashion and considered as an accessory, one can simply conclude that it is may not just be a perk for publicity reasons. Logo lanyards help individuals express themselves; being proud about being a part of a certain group and wanting to show it to the world without words but just by using this simple, cheap, and useful accessory… It would be undoubtedly worth it.

Fearing The Search Engines Is Dumb – Stick To SEO

January 20th, 2015

Right now you’re going to be able to search for just about anything you’d like online, and find that someone is afraid of it. In the marketing world, look at “Google Updates” and you’re going to run into a lot of bloggers that have stated they are in fear of the next big wave of change. The search engine shocked the internet marketing world with changes to their algorithm that completely stunned a lot of pages. If your site got hit hard, then you already know that there’s another thing looming in the horizon that could very well push you in the wrong direction overall. If you’re going to find yourself chasing the wind in terms of traffic, you are going to end up fearing the search engines eventually. It’s best not to fear things, but instead focus on building the best website you can, and focusing on real world SEO instead of the shenanigans that many people are advocating.

The fear of search engine updates is not so much because they control everything, but rather they control the traffic that you get “organically”. There are other ways to get targeted traffic, however, and it’s rarely discussed in long term solutions. It’s with that in mind that you should consider a few elements of change that you shouldn’t fear, and instead fight to get yourself a place in a good region of the online world. As such, focus on the following pieces, and don’t fear search engine algorithmic penalties for change.

The Content Marketing Play

First and foremost, you should be working with a diverse array of marketing channels. There shouldn’t be a day that you don’t work with marketing in this format. Right now there are 15 to 20 different types of content that you could be working on and all of them will serve different purposes for your website. Focus on these and you will come out far and away ahead of the pack. You want to make sure that you’re able to gain credibility in a lot of arenas, and that’s something that is only going to happen if you publish content that is worth sharing, and pushing in the right direction. The content marketing issue is something that you are not going to be able to circumvent, and something that is definitely worth aligning yourself within.

Marketing as a whole lends itself well to content, but only if you are looking at tit in the right areas. It’s easy to get caught up with the wrong things and end up having to deal with a variety of issues that you’re not prepared for. It’s imperative that you focus on the content diversity play and publish as much content as you can across several different areas of the web. If you are diverse with your content, it won’t matter if you get indexed or not, you will build an audience that will be extremely loyal to your page.

The Link Generation Issue

SEOIn the past the search engines diminished the power of links. Then they completely dumped a ton of sites, and now it’s back in play. If you want to get moving forward with link generation, go for it, just remember to find sites that are high quality and are going to help you rank better. If you focus on this in the correct manner, you’re going to gain leverage overall, but you have to concern yourself with the right solutions overall. It’s important that you do not focus on the wrong areas for links and don’t buy them straightway. Do not spend your money on link generation if the links aren’t going to be transparent and placed in high quality areas. It’s easy to buy links that get pushed into the wrong areas, so be very careful with this overall.

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Social Media Sharing

You want to go viral eventually, but don’t force it. Make sure that you’re sharing content on these pages and you’re working within the parameters that are going to give you a fighting chance of marketing. Social media marketing is not relegated to just one area of the web either, you want to go across several pages and ensure that your marketing collateral is going to push you to the right elements overall. Social media is not isolated to one site and shouldn’t be used as such. Focus on building a budget between yourself and users and you’ll gain leverage over time.

The aforementioned elements of marketing are all placed in proper channels moving forward. Always focus on them as a part of a larger scale solution, and don’t allow yourself to play with the search engine update fears that others are pushing. There’s nothing to fear, and if you end up placating search engines a great deal, you’ll end up in a pendulum swing of issues that you don’t want to end up dealing with. You want to focus on the right elements overall, and that’s something that you’re going to want to consider as you move forward within the world of marketing as a whole. Stick to SEO, slow moving link exchanges, and other elements that take time to build on, and you’ll gain credibility guaranteed.